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Caproni Ca.135bis U in Hungarian air force


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I'm in need of some hungarian air force expert help here.

I have a couple of question RE hungarian Air force second deployment to the eastern front (june-november 1942).
I was doing some research on use of Caproni Ca.135bis U by Hungarians on the eastern front and trying to expand my knowledge on the topic a bit.
Might just post my attempt here when i make sense of the mess.
I'm trying to deciphre info on use of this rather obscure aircraft. 

Problem:
I have a bit of conflicting information regarding Hunagarian air force organisation during fighting in the SSSR in 1942.

Might just post it here later when i'm reasonably satisfied with it.


My primary source on this questions are:
1. The Royal Hungarian Army 1920-1945 Volume 1 – Organisation and History by Leo W.G. Niehorster (airforce is dealt with on pages 170-177) - great source on organisation, reorganisations, OBB's (can post link to the pdf if moderators allow)

Secondary source:
2. Hungarian eagles Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő 1920-1945 (Hikoki publications) by Gyula Sárhidai (Author), Viktor Kozlik (Author), Győgy Punka (Author, Illustrator)


1. Need help with a date:
During second deployment from late june 1942 Niehorster says that 1. Air force Group was renamed into 2. Hungarian Air Brigade on 21th of June 1942 just before deploying to the SSSR.
Source 2 says thet on 15th of October 1942 1. Air Division was renamed into 2. Air Brigade. Interestingly source 2 also mentions that newly formed 2. Air Brigade went east in late june with Hungarian 2.Army but in text constantly refers to the unit as 1.Air division.
Which date is correct?

2. Need some help to make sense of this mess or which Ca.135bis units were acctualy present on eastern front during second deployment:

Re unit designation

4./III (4. bomber regiment, III bomber group of the regiment)

4./7 (4. bomber regiment, 7. squadron of the regiment in this case part III group of the regiment)


Regarding Caproni units during second deployment june-september (november) 1942:
Nierhorster states that 4./6 and 4./7 squdrons were only bomber units (4./III Group i.e. III Group of 4.Bomber regiment) and were sent back to hungary in september but also states that 4./1 was sent back to Hungary in mid november (last op being on 31th of October). He does not include 4./1 squadron or its 4./I Group into his OBB at all neither does it mention anywhere axcept at the november return.

Source 2 states that 4./1 “Boszorkány” (Witch) squadron was sent east on 24th of june with 7 planes and 4 planes that followed a couple of days later. Few lines later when talking about other units (on page 21) it states:
"Certanly 12 He-46 aircraft arrived on 22nd of june but 9 Caproni Ca.135 bomber that arrived earlier lost one of their number when undercaridge broke on landing and the aircraft became unusable"
Source 2 only talks about 4./1 in RE Capronis and doesn't mention 4./6 and 4./7 at all. It says that Capronis were sent home in september and 4./1 landed in Hungary on 15th of November 1942 losing last plane with entire crew due explosion on 31th of october on last raid.

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OK here it goes. Compilation of various sources (at the bottom) liberal use of google translate etc.

As said this is work in progress and i'm still unshure about couple of details. Help with further details, problems and corrections would be apreciated.

If you use it please credit me and the sources.

Links with pics and drawings from Parts catalogue are at the bottom.

 

Caproni Ca.135bis U in Hungarian service

 

compiled by Marko Tisovic

 

Agreement between Caproni and Kingdom of Hungary for export of 32 Ca.135 aircraft was signed on 19th of June 1937. Contract was for delivery of 32 heavy bomber aircraft Ca.135: 30 aircraft with Isotta Fraschini Asso XI.RC.40, 1 aircraft with Piaggio P.XI RC.40 radials and 1 aircraft with Alfa Romeo A.R.135. Order was not followed trough at the time due to Trianon treaty restrictions and dire financial situation (6.).

 

While treaty of Bled signed on 22nd of August 1938 eased restrictions on Hungarian Air Force formation/legalisation financial situation was bad so Hungarian Air Force bought aircraft it could afford. In case of bomber aircraft, that meant buying German Ju-86K-2 and Italian Caproni Ca-310 Libbecio. These two types constituted entire Hungarian bomber force and were bought even before Treaty of Bled allowed formation of Hungarian Air Force.

 

Junkers Ju-86K-2 was already considered obsolete even though it was equipped with more powerful Manfred Weiss-built Gnome-Rhone 14K Mistral-Major 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engines. It carried a light defensive armament, a relatively small bomb load and was slow.

Caproni Ca.310’s proved unsatisfactory in service as it could carry only a small bomb load was underpowered and had host of technical issues. They bought 36 aircraft of which 3 were soon lost in accidents.

In general European political situation, where all countries were preparing for possible war and modernising their own air forces finding a country that would be willing to sell modern bomber aircraft to Hungary proved difficult. So when opportunity appeared in Italy which was willing to sell a rather modern bomber aircraft and even opening a line of credit and the Caproni company was willing to take a trade in of the unsatisfactory Ca.310 Hungarians accepted.

On the other hand Caproni developed the Ca.135 for Italian Airforce (Regia Aeronautica) which was ultimately not interested in the type and bought only 14 aircraft. A few of these were sent to Spain for testing in combat conditions and were hence known as “tipo Spagnia” and Peru bought 6 aircraft equipped with Isotta Fraschini Asso XI.RC.40 (888 hp at 13123 ft.)  known as “tipo Peru”. Therefore Caproni had a free production line and some already built aircraft that were intended for RA.

                                                                                                                                                                            

Decision to replace obsolete bomber aircraft with Ca.135 was taken on 10th of December 1939 on recommendation of lt.col (alezredes) Aladár Szirmay (of the general staff) and engineer captains Dezsö Fridirik and Lóránt Dóczy who tested the Ca.135bis in Guidonia in November 1939 as members of Hungarian Commission (1.).

 

The agreement signed on January 17th 1940 and to be implemented by April 30th, provided for the delivery of 36 aircraft, upon return of remaining 33 examples (out of 36) of Ca.310 Libbecio already employed by Hungary. Second order of 36 aircraft was made in July 1941 to be delivered by May 1942. Planes were to be equipped with 2 Piaggio P.XI RC.40 engines with 1000 H.P. each and received suffix U for Ungherese (Hungarian) (1.).

 

Delivery

The first batch of 32 Ca.135bis U of 36 plane order was delivered by May (of which only 10 were newly built) and rest were delivered by June 1940 and received Hungarian Aviation military registrations from B.501 to B.536. To this first batch another 36 examples were added which were ordered in July 1941: 19 delivered in 1941 and 17 in 1942 which were presumably registered from B.537 to B.568. The Hungarians operated a total of 68 Ca.135bis U with some success against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front in 1941 and 1942, once Hungary had committed its forces in war against Soviet Union.

 

Into the service:

Unit numbering example:

4.     Bombázóezred  - Bomber regiment

4./I  Bombázóosztáli - Bomber Group  (4. Regiment, I Group inside the regiment)

4./1 Bombázószázad  - Bomber Squadron (4. Regiment, .1 Squadron inside the regiment)

 

The Aircraft Research Establishment (RKI) and unit trials started in February 1940 with aircraft B501 (factory No. 4449) (1.)

 

Organisation of bomber force before first Ca.135bis U shipments (late 1939-early 1940) (2.):

3. Bomber Regiment:

3./I  Group with sqn. 3./1, 3./2, 3./3 with total of 12+3 Ju-86K-2

3./II Group with Sqn. 3./4, 3./5, 3./6 with total of 12+3 Ju-86K-2

 

4. Bomber Regiment:

4./I  Group with sqn. 4./1, 4./2, 4./3 with total of 12+3 Ju-86K-2

4./II Group with Sqn. 4./4, 4./5, 4./6 with total of 12+3 Ju-86K-2

 

First squadrons equipped with Ca.135bis U were part of 3. Bomber Regiment (1.):

3./3 “Sárkány” squadron (Debrecen) under command of major Ferenc Czékus

3./5 “Uz Bence” squadron (Debrecen) under command of captain Béla Szándor                   

3rd independent repair squadron  (Debrecen) under command of engineer captain Dezso Fridirik

3./6 “Boszorkány” squadron (Pápa) under command of captain József Samorjai

 

The ever-increasing tension between Romania and Hungary brought into being the 1st Air Brigade (1. Repülödandár) on June 6, 1940 and its six fighter squadrons, six light bomber squadrons, and four heavy bomber squadrons took up positions in the eastern part of Hungary due to Transylvania crisis. That included existing Caproni units which were only partially trained and equipped.

 

Towards the end of 1940 the Bombàzo Osztàli (Bombing Group) 4./I began transitioning from  Ju-86K-2 to the new aircraft and all 36 Ca.135 were concentrated in this unit. Transition was completed in early 1941 at the Debrecen airfield, where it is located together with Group 4./IV which was still equipped with Ju-86K-2. Both groups constituted the 4. Bomber Regiment.

 

Composition of bomber force on 10th April 1941 (2.):

3. Bomber Regiment (Topolca):

3./I  Group (Topolca) with:

 Squadrons: 3./1, 3./2, 3./3 with total of 27+9 Ju-86K-2 (9+3 per squadron)

3./II Group (Pápa) with:

Squadrons: 3./4, 3./5    with total of 18+6 Ju-86K-2 (9+3 per squadron)

 

4. Bomber Regiment (Debrecen):

4./I  Group (Debrecen)

Squadrons: 4./1, 4./2, 4./3 with total of 27+9 Ca.135bis/U (9+3 per squadron)

4./II Group (Debrecen):

Squadrons: 4./4, 4./5  with total of 18+6 Ju-86K-2 (9+3 per squadron)

 

During war against Yugoslavia all Hungarian aircraft including Ca-135bis received theatre markings in form of yellow painting of the nose and tail unit. Bombers did not fly operational sorties against Yugoslavia.

 

After hostilities against Yugoslavia ended Hungarian air force was reorganised. Bomber force which was composed of 3. and 4. Bomber regiments was reorganised due to poor serviceability of aircraft with some squadrons being only equipped nominally. On 1st of June 1941 3. Bomber regiment was dissolved and 3./I and 3./II became 4./I and 4./II respectively. 4. Bomber Regiment was stationed in Debrecen and its 4./III Group (ex 4./I) converted to Ca-135bis  and 4./VI Group (ex 4./II) still operated Ju-86K-2 (1., 2.).

 

In June 1941 at start of war against SSSR bomber force component of Hungarian 1st Air Force Field Brigade (2.):

4. Bomber Regiment (Debrecen):

4./I    Group with sqn. 4./1, 4./2, 4./3 Ca.135bis

4./II   Group with Sqn. 4./4, 4./5          Ju-86K-2

4./III  Group with Sqn. 4./7, 4./8          Ca.135bis

4./IV  Group with Sqn. 4./10, 4./11     Ju-86K-2

 

Caproni Ca.135bisU in war against Soviet Union

First deployment to the Eastern Front:

The war operations carried out by the Ca.135 bis U during first deployment against SSSR can be divided into two phases:

-          First phase: in the period June-July 1941 with missions carried out from the Hungarian territory.

-          Second phase: from July to December 1941 starting from bases located in the occupied Soviet territory.

 

On June 27th 1941, the day of Hungarian declaration of war with air raid in retaliation for bombing of Kassa (Košice in Slovakia) Caproni bombers had their baptism of fire. At around 0800, around 30 Junkers Ju-86K of 4/3. and 4/4. bombazoszazad (bomber squadrons) and Caproni Ca.135bis of “Uz Bence” bombazoszazad performed a large-scale bombing mission against Stanislav (Ivano-Frankovsk). They were escorted with 9 FIAT Cr.42 of 2/3. "Ricsi" vadaszszazad (fighter squadron).

 

That day, lieutenant (föhadnagy) Istvan Szakonyi, on his Ca.135 from the 4./III Bomber Group, managed to destroy an important bridge with a 'trial drop' of two bombs.

 

June 29th, Ju 86K-2 and Ca.135bis escorted with Cr.42 targeted Striy. Hungarian fighters intercepted seven Soviet bombers over Csap (Chop).

 

On the evening of July 1st, 18 Ju-86K-2 and 9 Ca.135bis escorted by two squadrons of Cr.42 bombed Delatin railway station and Soviet troops concentrations.

 

On July 2nd, 4/4. bombazaszad's Ju-86K-2 reinforced by 8 Ca.135Bis U of “Uz Bence” performed bombing missions over Stanislav, Zaleschiky and Snyatyn.

 

On July 3rd, the same squadrons bombed Kamenets-Podolski and Buchach as well as bridges over the Dniestr. A Ca.135bis (B.534) and a Ju-86K-2 (B.322) were slightly damaged, while a WM-21 (coded F.223) was 90% destroyed after having overturned while landing.

 

In July of 1941 a mixed independent squadron (4/O Onallo Század) with six Ju 86K-2s of 4./IV Group and 6 Ca-135bis from 4./III Group was attached as a bomber unit to the Hungarian 1. Air Force Field Brigade commanded by Lt Col (alezredes) Béla Orosz, that had been tasked to provide air support to "Carpathian Group" (Kárpát Csoport) of the Hungarian Army in Soviet Union under command of General (Vezérezredes) Ferenc Szombathelyi which was attached to German 17th Army (Army Group South). 1st Air Force Field Brigade participated in the advance into the territory of Soviet Union. Actions were taken against the Red Army enemy troop concentrations and communications in the Carpathians and a bridge over the Prut was destroyed.

 

On 11th of August 1941, 6 Capronis, commanded by lieutenant (föhadnagy) Szakonyi, took off from the Ukrainian airport of Vinniza to bomb a 2 km (6,560 ft.) bridge across the Bug River in the city of Nikolayev, on the Black sea. One of the Ca.135’s had to turn back due to engine problems, but the other five, escorted by Hungarian fighters (12 Fiat CR.42 and 6 Reggiane Re.2000), continued eastwards. During the action Ca.135 (B.517) piloted by Izstván Szakonyi and Sandor Andras was hit by anti-aircraft artillery just before the target and lost one engine.  One of his pilots, Capt. Eszenyi, destroyed the bridge, and Szakonyi bombed the Nikolayev train station. Szakonyi’s airplane lost contact with formation and its fighter escort and was repeatedly attacked by I-16 fighters. In thirteen minutes of combat, the aircraft was riddled with gunfire but the surviving Piaggio P.XI which was often accused of precarious functioning, this time worked very well, guaranteeing the return to the auxiliary airfield of Pervomaysk. On the way back the Capronis were intercepted by Soviet Polikarpov I-16 fighters. The escorting Hungarian fighters shot down 5 soviet Polikarpov I-16 fighters while the crippled Szakonyi's Ca.135 managed to destroy another three Polikarpovs. Bridge was of considerable importance on a tactical level and its destruction caused isolation of about 60 thousand Soviet soldiers. After the German 11th Army captured Nikolayev, on 16 August, the commander of Luftflotte 4, Col Gen Lohr, decorated the successful Hungarian crews at Sutyska.

 

Operational cycle of the Aviation Brigade continued until repatriation in December 1941, together with other units of the Hungarian Aviation operating aircraft that were considered, not to be able to withstand the rigors of Russian winter.

 

At reorganisation at the end of 1941 major (örnagy) Izstván Mocsáry was appointed as commander of unified squadrons under 4. Independent Bomber Regiment.

 

The accuracy of the bombing was improved with installation of “Jodza” bomb sight. This mirror system was capable of target distance measurement and continuing heading correction. With maximum bomb load of 1600kg, wide variety of bomb release sequences any bomb (including captured soviet bombs) from 2kg to 500kg could be used witch proved crucial when supply of delivered Italian bombs ran out.

 

One of the squadrons, the 4./III, (originally equipped with eight aircraft), soon lost one on landing. It was reinforced by another four aircraft. This squadron, up to October 1941, carried out 265 attacks, flew 1,040 sorties, and dropped around 1,450 tonnes (1,600 tons) of bombs, evidently helped by the short range to the targets (200–300 km/120-190 mi) that allowed them to use the aircraft's maximum bomb load of 1600kg. Two aircraft were shot down, another two were lost in accidents and 11 crewmen were killed. The daily average, over these four months, was over 8 missions flown and 13 tonnes (14 tons) of bombs dropped.

 

Overall performance of the Ca.135bis U was deemed satisfactory and aircraft showed good resistance to enemy fire and carried a good bomb load. On the other hand reliability of the engines and maintenance problems (spare parts) were considered problematic.

 

Markings of Ca.135bis U during first deployment in the SSSR.

 Airplanes carried standard “arrow” national markings. Yellow theatre fuselage band behind the wings in front of belly gun position and yellow wingtips on the under side.

 

Known aircraft using this markings:

B.512, B.513, B.516, B.517, B.524, B.525, B.529, B.531, B.533, B.534       

 

Second deployment to the Eastern Front:

                                                                                                                  

The two Bomber Squadrons of Ca.135bis, the 4./6 and 4./7 of the 4./III Bomber Group participated in formation of 1. Air Force Group in the late spring of 1942. It was tasked to provide tactical support and reconnaissance sorties to Hungarian 2nd Army. The only bombardment unit, the 4/III Bomber Group was equipped with 17 Ca.135s. 1. Air Force Group was redesignated as 2. Air Force Field Brigade on 21st of June 1942.

 

On June 24 1942 HQ staff of 4. Bomber regiment under command of major (örnagy) Izstván Mocsáry started from Debrecen with 4./1 “Boszorkány” (Witch) Squadron which was created with combining this squadron with “Uz bence” Squadron. First 7 Ca.135’s under command of lieutenant (föhadnagy) Andrázs Inokay took off to the front and few days later further 4 arrived of which was damaged on landing. 9 Caproni Ca.135 bombers that arrived earlier lost one of their number when undercarriage broke on landing and the aircraft became unusable (4.). Bombers were based at Konotop and after arrival began to attack fortifications in Tim region. After the fall of Tim road toward Don was opened. The land forces reaching the Don faced new ordeals as the period of the “Don bridgehead battles” began. The air force supported Hungarian ground forces during these battles. (3.)

 

On 3rd of July 5 more Capronis were dispatched to the front. One of them flown by cornet (zászlós) Baracskay returned due to technical problem. Request for reinforcements meant that group had 10 operational planes. In beginning of July bombers started on short range missions in 200-300km range. Short range of bombing missions meant that Capronias could utilise their maximum bomb loads of 1600kg.

 

On 7th of July one Ca.135bis was lost over Rahó when aircraft caught fire and crashed for unknown reasons killing 2 officers and 2 NCOs. On 10th of July 1942 2. Hungarian Army reached Don and dug in. In this sector 3 soviet bridgeheads remained Uriv, Kovotojak and Szcsucsje.

 

On 13th of July 4 sorties were performed against Uriv bridgehead. 3 planes returned and performed emergency landings and 1 plane was missing.

 

On 22nd of July decision was made that the reconnaissance and fighter squadrons were be moved to Ilovskoie and the bombers to Stari Oskol airfields.

On 4th of August soviet troops crossed the Don River and battle of Uriv bridgehead began. Capronis started bombing raids against troop crossings at Uriv.

 

During attack on bridge at Uriv over the river Don on 14th of august 1942 command plane (B.549) of the bomber unit  was hit by AAA fire killing the popular divisional commander major (örnagy) István Mocsáry as well as sergeant (örmester) Zoltán Nagy and lance-sergeant (szakaszvezetö) Imre Piri. Air Force Staff Lieutenant Colonel (alezredes) János Németh (Chief of Staff of the 2. Air Force Field Brigade) and First Lieutenant György Orbán, managed to jump out of the burning plane. Lieutenant Colonel (alezredes) János Németh survived with only a broken leg and had to be rescued from no-man's land, while First Lieutenant György Orbán survived unharmed.

 

Yet the war, and therefore the bridgehead battles, continued with the ongoing support of the 2. Air Force Field Brigade.

 

Ca-135 suffered from technical problems and spare parts were difficult to obtain which limited serviceability of the aircraft. It soon became apparent that serviceability severely limited combat employment. In comparison a German Ju-88 units could manage 5-6 sorties per day while Hungarian Ca-135 unit could only manage 1-2 sorties per day. At one point only 3 aircraft were operational due technical problems necessitating reinforcements from Hungary (3rd of July).

 

Decision was taken that Caproni bombers were to be sent back to Hungary and crew retrained on He-111, Ju-87 and Ju-88. 4./6 and 4./7 Squadrons were sent to Hungary in September.

Negotiations were also continuing with the Germans about how many Hungarian pilots would be retrained on site to fly the more modern Me-109, He-111, Ju-87, and Ju-88 airplanes. As a result on 7th of October part of a 4./1 bomber squadron (1st flight) was sent to Poltava airfield and received 5 used He-111’s and began training. At some point Germans decided that they will train 4./1 on Ju-88 and took planes away. Unit was later trained at Istres (France) during winter 1942-43.

Rest of the bomber crews was to be transferred home to start training on Ju-87B-2 and Ju-88A-4. The 4./1 bomber squadron’s happiness in landing in Debrecen 15th of November was tainted by the tragedy that occurred during their last sortie on 31th of October, when one of their planes was hit and exploded, killing everybody on board.

During the four months the bomber squadron spent at the operational area, they executed 265 bombing runs during 1,062 flights, dropped 1,700 tons of bombs, and lost 2 aircraft shot down, 1 lost due mechanical failure and 11 people killed.

 

Life after combat in SSSR

After return of the Capronis from Eastern front in September of 1942 remaining Ca.135bis were withdrawn from first  line unit service and posted to training and secondary duties units:

1.squadron of 1. bomber training division (Veszprém),

2. squadron of mission training division (Börgönd),

1. target towing aircraft squadron (Miskolc) and

Radio operator training squadron (Debrecen).

 

Caproni bombers were used in anti-partisan operations. One of these coused a bit of friction between German and Hungarian allies.

On August 2, 1943, three Caproni Ca.135bis bombers from the 4th Hungarian Bomber Air Group dropped 4.8 tons of bombs on the Kovpak partisan detachment positions between Kolomyia and Delyatin. One of the planes was hit and crashed during a forced landing on a rocky spit in the valley of the Tissa River. Its crew, led by first lieutenant (fohadnagy) Gusztav Halmay, survived.

 

The next day, the Capronis were joined by WM-21 single-engine light biplane bombers from the 4th short-range reconnaissance group. One of them, for some unknown reason, did not return to the airfield.

 

The piquancy of the situation lies in the fact that on 3rd of August, the Hungarian aviation struck not at the partisans, but at the positions of the German separate 26th mountain-jaeger regiment on Mount Sinichka which occupied  positions left by the partisans on the night from 2nd to 3rd of August. As a result, the regiment, which had been transferred from Norway to the Carpathians just ten days earlier, completely lost its combat capability. The scandal that had begun between the allies was hushed up only at the highest level through the efforts of SS Reichsfuehrer Himmler, who personally oversaw the conduct of this anti-partisan operation from Krakow.

 

Last “mission” of Debrecen based Ca.135’s was participation with full squadron in making of a movie “Magyar Sasok” in 1943-44. Last documents concerning Ca.135 speak of moving the remaining approx. 20 aircraft from Debrecen to Nádudvar in protection against allied air attacks. As far it is known last aircraft of this type were destroyed here by their crews to prevent capture by soviet troops.

 

The Hungarians did not particularly love the Ca.135Bis, but it was all they had, and so they had to make best out of it. Overall the war use of the aircraft was considered satisfactory. Aircraft demonstrated sufficient resistance to enemy fire and good defensive characteristics from Soviet fighter attacks. The Ca.135 on the Eastern front had frequent malfunctions and scarcity of parts set high demands on the mechanics maintaining it. A 50 per cent operational readiness of the Capronis was seen as a great achievement.

 

P.S.

Remains of one of the Ca.135bis and 4 member crew shot down in 1942 were found in November 2012 in area of village Kopaniše of Liskinski raion of Russian Federation. Hungarian search and recovery association (Magyar Roncskutato Egyesulet) asked for help to recover parts of the aircraft and its crew from lake on October 2013. Work by Voronezh search association started on 21st of October and was slated to last 7 days. Remains of the crew and aircraft were returned to Hungary at the end of that month.

 

Camouflage colours and markings of Hungarian Ca.135bis U:

National markings before the war were of “Arrow” type. They were changed  to “Cross” type on all Hungarian aircraft in April of 1942.

 

Theatre markings of all Hungarian aircraft including Ca.135bis U during April war against Kingdom of Yugoslavia were nose and entire empennage repainted in solid yellow.

 

Theatre markings on Ca.135bis U on Easten Front during first employment in 1941 was yellow fuselage stripe just after the wings and in front of lower gun position and lower wing tips of the wing painted yellow.

During second employment on Eastern Front aircraft of the second order  recived yellow fuselage stripe in front of empennage for newcomers and yellow stripe on same place as in 1941 for older planes that already served in SSSR during previous year deployment with yellow painted lower wing tips.

 

Camouflage colours used on Hungarian Caproni Ca.135bis U aircraft are still under the debate.

Aircraft of first order of Ca.135bis U delivered in 1940 seem to be as per photographs in standard Caproni factory camouflage of 3 upper colours and light grey lower side. Upper colors consisted of light colour base and 2 darker colours mottle in several variation of shape and size. 

Caproni company used following colours (15.):

Giallo mimetico 3 or Verde Mimetico 53192 – upper base colour

Marrone Mimetico 2 or Marrone Mimetico 53193, Bruno Mimetico – upper mottle

Verde Mimetico 3 – upper mottle

Grigio Mimetico – lower surfaces           

 

Aircraft of the second order delivered in 1941 and 1942 and those planes that were refurbished were painted in 2 tone green upper camouflage with light blue lower surfaces.

 

 

Sources:

1.       Planes Resin 1/72 Caproni Ca.135bis/U - instruction sheet

2.       The Royal Hungarian Army 1920-1945 Volume 1 – Organisation and History by  Leo W.G. Niehorster –pages from 170 to 174: http://niehorster.org/015_hungary/book/Royal_Hungarian_Army_1920-1945.pdf

3.       Establishment of the Hungarian Air Force and the Activity of the Hungarian Royal “Honvéd” Air Force in World War II Respectively by Szabó Miklós Major-General (Ret.). Correspondent Member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences

4.       Hungarian eagles Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő 1920-1945 (Hikoki publications) by Gyula Sárhidai (Author), Viktor Kozlik (Author), Győgy Punka (Author, Illustrator)

5.       Hungarian Air Force (Squadron/Signal publications) by Goerge Punka

6.       http://www.alieuomini.it/ not functional at this time

7.       https://airpages.ru/ot/ca135.shtml

8.       https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caproni_Ca.135#Utilizzatori

9.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caproni_Ca.135

10.   http://www.ww2incolor.com/hungary/CA135-HAF-INC.html

11.   http://pro-samolet.ru/aircraft-ww2-italy/bomber/1043-bomber-caproni-ca135

12.   https://comandosupremo.com/caproni-ca-135/

13.   http://aviadejavu.ru/Site/Crafts/Craft26047.htm

14.   http://aviadejavu.ru/Site/Arts/Art2931.htm

15.   https://www.stormomagazine.com/RegiaAeronauticaColorsinWWII_3a.htm camouflage colours

 

RE finding a remains of plane and its crew:

https://www.aex.ru/news/2013/10/28/112504/

               

Photos:

http://home.mit.bme.hu/~tade/pages/acpicts.htm

http://www.avia-info.hu/talalat.php?Ujtipus=356

https://www.lasegundaguerra.com/viewtopic.php?t=14801

 

Drawings from parts catalogue can be found here:

http://www.cmpr.it/MN - Nomenclatore Ca. 135 - FC/nom.Ca.135.htm

Edited by TISO
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  • 1 month later...

As said work in progress.

I numbered sources and added them into the text. I also added markings & camouflage part at the end.

I asked a colegue who speaks Hungarian to translate tactical technical info on the instruction. i will post them when i get them

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  • 4 weeks later...

Caproni Ca.135bis U technical information:

 

General characteristics:

Wing span = 18.8 m

Length = 13.7 m

Height = 3.4 m with tail on the ground

Distance between main wheels = 5.1 m

Wing surface = 60 m2

Wing load = 158 kg/m2

Fuel tank volume = 1170 l

Oil tank volume = 105 l

Weight empty = 6000 kg

Total load = 3500 kg

Useful load = 2800 kg

Max take-off weight = 9500 kg

 

Performance:

Weight - power ratio = 4.74 kg/H.P.

Max speed at 4300m = 428 km/h

Traveling speed = 345 km/h

Climb to 2000 m = 7 min 30 s

Climb to 4000 m = 14 min

Climb to 5000 m = 18 min 30 s

Service ceiling = 6000 m

Take off length = 360 m

Landing length = 320 m

Range with 1600 kg bomb load = 1200 km

Range with 1000 kg bomb load = 2000 km

 

Engines:

Engines = 2 x Piaggio P.XI RC - 14-cylinder air cooled radial engines

Fuel type: 87 octane

 

Power output:

Take-off = 1,000 PS (735 kW) at 2,200 rpm

Military = 1,000 PS (735 kW) at 2,200 rpm at 4,000 m (13,000 ft)

Cruising = 1,000 PS (735 kW) at 1,800 rpm at 4,000 m (13,000 ft)

Specific power = 19.1 kW/l (0.49 hp/cu in)

Compression ratio = 6.0:1

Specific fuel consumption = 0.292 kg/kW/hr (0.48 lb/hp/hr)

Oil consumption = 0.0134 kg/k/w/hr (0.022 lb/hp/hr)

Power-to-weight ratio = 1.15 kW/kg (0.699 hp/lb)

 

Armament:

Offensive = 1,862 kg max bomb load (depending on bomb load configuration)

Defensive = 3 x 12.7 mm (0.500 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns

 

Sources:

1.      Planes Resin 1/72 Caproni Ca.135bis/U - instruction sheet

2.      Wikipedia page for engines

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