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1 APRIL

 

1998 Talgat Musabeyev & Nikolai Budarin (Mir Expedition 25)

 

Duration 6 hr 40 min

 

On 3 March an EVA had to be cancelled when the cosmonauts were unable to open the outer hatch of the Kvant 2 airlock because of a broken wrench. Now, using a replacement tool delivered by Progress M-38, the work could go ahead. The pair installed foot restraints on the Spektr module that would be used on a future EVA to repair the solar arrays that had been damaged in the collision of Progress M-34 the previous June.

 

Fourth EVA for Musabeyev; fifth for Budarin

 

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2 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date

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3 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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4 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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5 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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6 APRIL

 

1998 Talgat Musabeyev & Nikolai Budarin (Mir Expedition 25)

 

Duration 4 hr 23 min

 

The cosmonauts continued repair work on the Spektr Module, which had suffered severe damage in the Progress collision. They installed a brace to support the solar array, but this work took longer than anticipated and the following task, to replace a Portable Power Plant, could not be completed. Replacement of a thruster on the Sofora boom was not attempted either. To make matters worse, Mir began to drift out of attitude and Mission Control mistakenly thought this was due to a lack of fuel in the orientation engine and cut the EVA short, In fact, this had been caused by an error by Mission Control themselves and they were able to stabilise the station once the cosmonauts were back aboard.

 

Fifth EVA for Musabeyev; sixth for Budarin.

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7 APRIL

 

1983 Story Musgrave & Donald Peterson (STS-6)

 

Duration 4 hr 10 min

 

This was the first EVA from the Space Shuttle: one had been planned for the previous mission but was cancelled because of a problem with one of the space-suits. The main objective was simply to evaluate the suits, and it was discovered that though they had been designed to be put on without assistance, an additional crewman was needed to help close the waist ring connecting the upper and lower segments. A spare suit had been flown in case the previous problems recurred: this, as well as the exercise treadmill, was stored in the airlock and forced the astronauts to stand face to face during the three-hour 'pre-breathe' period during which the suit pressure was reduced. Finally the time came and the first American EVA in six years began. Musgrave worked his way back along the payload bay then climbed to the top of the aft bulkhead to look back over Challenger's engine bells. The two then demonstrated how the payload bay doors could be closed manually in the event of a failure, without actually shutting them. They also went through the motions of lowering a jammed satellite tilt table.

 

First EVA for Musgrave; the only one for Peterson

 

 


1991 Jerry Ross & Jay Apt (STS-37)

 

Duration 4 hr 26 min

 

One of the highlights of this mission was the first American EVA since STS-61B (in which Ross, coincidentally, was also involved). However, the day before this was due to take place, the astronauts had to carry out an unplanned EVA to free a jammed antenna on the Gamma Ray Observatory satellite. Ross and Apt had been waiting in the airlock during the pre-deployment checkout, ready for just this eventuality. The satellite's solar panels opened as planned but though the high-gain antenna unlatched its boom failed to open. The astronauts left the airlock and soon Ross was able to manually push the boom to its extended position. He continued with the manual procedure, removing a pin and locking the boom in place, though as the Orbiter was on the night side of Earth he had difficulty finding footholds. Once Atlantis emerged into daylight they carried out some of the tasks scheduled for the following day, evaluating a new design of handrails and using a device called Crew Loads Instrumented Pallet (CLIP) to measure forces placed on foot restraints. At the end of the EVA the two retreated to the airlock but did not close the outer hatch until the GRO was safely away.

 

Third EVA for Ross; first for Apt

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8 APRIL

 

1984 George Nelson & James van Hoften (STS-41C)

 

Duration 2 hr 38 min

 

The objective of this EVA was to retrieve and repair the Solar Max satellite, which had suffered a failure in its attitude control system in November 1980, less than a year after launch. Its repair had been high on NASA's 'to do' list once the Shuttle became operational. Once rendezvous was complete, Nelson tried to use the Manned Manoeuvring Unit to dock with the satellite, using a fixture mounted between the backpack's arms. However the fixture's jaws failed to close on the docking pin and the satellite began to spin. Nelson tried twice more but was still unable to secure Solar Max and each attempt made the spin worse. He then tried to grip of one of the solar arrays and stop the rotation with the MMU's automatic attitude hold facility, but this only made matters worse as the satellite began tumbling in two axes. It lost its lock on the Sun and began draining its batteries. By now the MMU was running low on propellant and the EVA was terminated. It was later determined that the docking attempt had failed because of a grommet on the satellite which did not appear on its blueprints.

 

First EVA for both astronauts

 

 


1991 Jerry Ross & Jay Apt (STS-37)

 

Duration 5 hr 47 min

 

Unlike the contingency EVA carried out by the same men the previous day, to free the stuck antenna boom on the GRO satellite, this one was part of the flight plan. The astronauts assembled a 14.6m track down the port side of the payload bay and attached the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (a cart-like device) then took turns in riding it along the length of the bay, by manually hauling themselves along a handrail, then by using a hand-crank to generate electrical power for a motor and finally by a mechanical winch. At one point Ross found that the cart would not move and realised he had forgotten to release the parking brake! It was discovered that the manual haul method was the most efficient, with the hand-crank in second place and the winch last. The astronauts also experimented with working at the end of the manipulator arm. However in post-mission reports they noted that in the five-year gap between the last American EVA prior to this flight, much of the skills and expertise had been lost. They advised that numerous EVAs would be required to rebuild these capabilities before construction of Space Station Freedom was attempted, and in particular EVAs on consecutive days by the same people should be avoided.

 

Fourth EVA for Ross; second and final one for Apt, giving him a total of 10 hr 49 min

 

 


2003 Ken Bowersox & Donald Pettit (ISS Expedition 6)

 

Duration 6 hr 26 min

 

This EVA was scheduled in the wake of the Columbia accident to avoid the need for one during the next ISS Expedition, which would be a two-man operation with the Shuttle grounded and the normal supply chain disrupted. The tasks carried out had been deferred as non-urgent from previous EVAs, including the installation of a new power relay box on the Mobile Transporter, and the rerouting of electrical connections between the S0 Truss and its neighbours. They also repaired a failed gyroscope and reinstalled a module which regulated the ammonia flow through the coolant system. Finally, they fitted lights and a stanchion to the CETA cart. a task abandoned during the EVA on 15 January because the stanchion was stuck. They managed to solve this problem by hitting it with a hammer.

 

Second and final EVA for both men: career total for each is 13 hr 17 min

 

 


2019 Anne McClain & David Saint-Jacques (ISS Expedition 59)

 

Duration 6 hr 29 min

 

The astronauts installed a backup power line to the manipulator arm, fitted cables to improve radio communication outside the station, and relocated an adapter plate for use in the ongoing battery replacement programme.

 

Second and final EVA (to date) for McClain, giving her a total of 13 hr 8 min; the only one to date for Saint-Jacques.

 

 

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9 APRIL

 

2010 Rick Mastracchio & Clayton Anderson (STS-131/ISS)

 

Duration 6 hr 27 min

 

The primary objective was to install a new ammonia tank on the ISS, a complex procedure planned to extend over three separate EVAs. The task was begun with Mastracchio releasing the clamps that held the new tank in the Shuttle's cargo bay, while Anderson disconnected the empty tank from its fluid lines. The pair then positioned the new tank so it could be picked up by the station's manipulator arm. As it was being moved to a temporary storage area, the astronauts carried out other minor tasks, replacing the rate gyro assembly and doing preparatory work for battery replacement to be conducted later.

 

Fourth EVA for both astronauts.

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10 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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11 APRIL

 

1984 George Nelson & James van Hoften (STS-41C)

 

Duration 7 hr 18 min

 

The failed attempt to capture Solar Max three days earlier had left the satellite spinning and unable to recharge its batteries through its solar panels. Fortunately ground controllers managed to stabilise it ready for a second try. This time Terry Hart, aboard the Orbiter, was able to snare the satellite with the manipulator arm and lower it into the cargo bay, where Nelson and van Hoften replaced its attitude control and main electronics box. This task was completed an hour earlier than expected. The failed system was stored so it could be analysed back on Earth, as were some thermal blankets and various other parts, to be studied by orbital debris researchers. Before the EVA ended, van Hoften took the MMU on a short test run without leaving the payload bay.

 

Second EVA for both men; the last one for Nelson, giving a total of 9 hr 22 min.

 

 


1987 Yuri Romanenko & Aleksandr Leveykin (Mir Expedition 2)

 

Duration 3 hr 35 min

 

This was the first EVA to be conducted from Mir, made necessary by the failure of the Kvant Module to achieve a hard dock the previous day. The new module had achieved a soft dock but was unable to retract its probe to form an airtight seal. The cosmonauts had been unable to see anything out of the ordinary through the aft viewports so it was necessary for them to go outside and inspect the situation. Kvant was left in the soft-dock configuration but its attitude control system was disabled to avoid damage to the docking collars. The cosmonauts discovered "an extraneous white object" jammed between the two craft: this turned out to be a piece of twisted cloth, presumably part of the trash that had been loaded aboard Progress 28 before its departure. Leveykin discarded the object and the two cosmonauts watched as Kvant completed its docking procedure before returning to the newly-expanded Mir. The EVA had begun shortly before midnight Moscow time, which meant it was completed on 12 April: Cosmonautics Day, the anniversary of Gagarin's pioneer flight.

 

Second EVA for Romanenko; the first for Leveykin

 

 


1998 Talgat Musabeyev & Nikolai Budarin (Mir Expedition 25)

 

Duration 6 hr 25 min

 

The cosmonauts continued tasks begun a few days earlier, disconnecting a redundant roll thruster from the Sofora boom ready for replacement by a more efficient unit. They also removed the Portable Power Plant, which would also be replaced on a future EVA. Finally a space exposure experiment was retrieved.

 

Sixth EVA for Musabeyev; seventh for Budarin.

 

 


2002 Steven Smith & Rex Walheim (STS-110/ISS)

 

Duration 7 hr 48 min

 

This was the first of four scheduled EVAs to connect the S0 Truss to the Destiny Laboratory, the core of the ISS. The first phase involved the astronauts bolting two of the four support struts on Destiny and preparing avionics equipment and cables which would be connected later. They then connected an umbilical system between the truss and the Mobile Transporter, a major step in the ISS's assembly as it would allow the manipulator arm to move around the station rather than being fixed in one location.

 

Sixth EVA for Smith; the first for Walheim.

 

 

 

2010 Rick Mastracchio & Clayton Anderson (STS-131/ISS)

 

Duration 7 hr 26 min

 

Work on replacing an old ammonia tank continued with the disconnection of two power cables and four bolts. It was then transferred to the CETA cart by the manipulator arm. While they waited for the new tank to be brought into position, the astronauts installed two stowage beams on the P1 Truss, where future equipment could be parked temporarily. They then connected the new ammonia tank, though one of the four bolts gave them a little trouble. After all the cables and links had been attached, they freed the old tank from the CETA cart so that the manipulator arm could transfer it to a longer-term stowage place. Finally they removed two debris shields and brought them back into the airlock.

 

Fifth EVA for both men.

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12 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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13 APRIL

 

2002 Jerry Ross & Lee Morin (STS-110/ISS)

 

Duration 7 hr 30 min

 

The astronauts installed the final two support struts that connected the S0 Truss to the Destiny Module, then detached clamps and panels that had supported the truss during flight. They found themselves unable to unscrew one bolt and that task was left for another time. Finally they installed a backup device for the Mobile Transporter.

 

Eighth EVA for Ross; the first for Morin

 

 


2010 Rick Mastracchio & Clayton Anderson (STS-131/ISS)

 

Duration 6 hr 24 min

 

Third EVA to replace the spent ammonia tank. The old tank had already been transferred into Discovery's cargo bay and the astronauts secured it in place for return to Earth, after putting the finishing touches to the installation of the new one. This all took about an hour, after which they carried out several minor tasks including retrieval of an adapter plate assembly from the Columbus Module, which was also secured in the cargo bay, and the installation of a second video camera and removal of an insulation blanket on the Dextre robot, A failed light on the Destiny Module was replaced, and two radiator grapple fixture stowage beams were installed.

 

Sixth EVA for both astronauts; it was the last one for Anderson which gave him a career total of 38 hr 28 min.

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14 APRIL

 

2002 Steven Smith & Rex Walheim (STS-110/ISS)

 

Duration 6 hr 27 min

 

With the S0 Truss bolted in place, the astronauts released the latch that had temporarily held it in position, then reconfigured electrical connections between the Destiny Module and the Mobile Transporter to power the station's manipulator arm. They were then able to unbolt the clamps that had locked the transporter to the truss. The final task, to attach the Airlock Spur to Quest, was postponed until the last EVA of the mission.

 

Seventh and final EVA for Smith: his total amounts to 49 hr 45 min. Second EVA for Walheim.

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15 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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16 APRIL

 

1985 Jeffrey Hoffman & David Griggs (STS-51D)

 

Duration 3 hr 6 min

 

This was the first Shuttle EVA that had not been planned and rehearsed in advance. Discovery had deployed two communications satellites, but one had failed to power up and engineers determined that the problem lay with a faulty switch on the comsat's side. It was originally proposed that an astronaut use the manipulator arm to reach the satellite and trip the switch by hand, but on this flight the arm was not fitted with the foot restraint. Instead, they came up with a plan to construct makeshift tools that could be attached to the end of the arm in an effort to trigger the switch, which would start the satellite's automatic timer. Using sticky tape and plastic shapes cut from flight manual covers, two such tools were made, nicknamed the 'flyswatter' and 'lacrosse stick'. Hoffman and Griggs were chosen to carry out the work as they had both trained for EVAs on two cancelled missions and had spent more than fifty hours in the WETF tank - about four times as much as normal. The manipulator arm was folded so that the end effector was halfway along the cargo bay and the two devices were secured in place with payload retention straps. They returned to the crew compartment and Rhea Seddon tried to trip the switch. Though she snared it several times with each of the tools, the satellite remained stubbornly inert and its repair would have to wait for a future mission.

 

First EVA for both astronauts; it would be the only one for Griggs.

 

 


1999 Viktor Afanaseyev & Jean-Pierre Haigneré (Mir Expedition 27)

 

Duration 6 hr 19 min

 

The cosmonauts were due to test a new sealant device to repair small leaks but this had to be called off. They did manage to retrieve a French-built orbital debris sampling device from the station's exterior and carried out an experiment designed by French school students. Finally they deployed a French-built amateur radio satellite dubbed 'Sputnik 99' for the year of its launch.

 

Fifth EVA for Afanaseyev; the only one for Haigneré.

 

 


2002 Jerry Ross & Lee Morin (STS-110/ISS)

 

Duration 6 hr 37 min

 

The astronauts connected the Airlock Spur to the S0 Truss, which would be used for assembling future sections of the truss backbone. They also fitted floodlights on the Unity and Destiny Modules, to provide illumination on future EVAs, as well as mounting a work platform, installing electrical converters and circuit breakers and fitting shock absorbers to the Mobile Transporter.

 

Ninth and final EVA for Ross (first American to make this many), giving a career total of 58 hr 32 min. Second and final EVA for Morin: his total is 14 hr 7 min.

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17 APRIL

 

1998 Talgat Musabeyev & Nikolai Budarin (Mir Expedition 25)

 

Duration 6 hr 33 min

 

The cosmonauts removed obsolete equipment from the Sofora boom in preparation for the installation of the new thruster unit. They dismantled and stored the Rapana platform which had held various experiments, then locked Sofora at an angle of 35 degrees to make it easier to mount the new thruster on the next EVA.

 

Seventh EVA for Musabeyev; eighth for Budarin.

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18 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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19 APRIL

 

1993 Gennadi Manakov & Aleksandr Poleshchuk (Mir Expedition 13)

 

Duration 5 hr 25 min

 

In a sense this was the first commercial EVA: in addition to their basic salary the cosmonauts were being paid a bonus of, according to one source, a million roubles for three EVAs. After Manakov had taken up position on the end of the Strela boom, Poleshchuk moved him to the worksite on Kvant, then used the boom to transfer an electric drive unit for one of the solar arrays, This was attached to its support framework and the power cables hooked up. However Poleshchuk then discovered that one of Strela's control handles had come off and floated away, The next EVA, planned for 23 April, had to be postponed until a replacement handle could be flown up on a Progress freighter.

 

Second EVA for Manakov; first for Poleshchuk.

 

 


2013 Pavel Vinogradov & Roman Romanenko (ISS Expedition 35)

 

Duration 6 hr 38 min

 

The cosmonauts' first task was to install the Obstanovka experiment on the exterior of Zvezda, to study plasma waves and the effect of space 'weather' on the ionosphere. They then replaced a faulty retro-reflector device that would be used by the ESA's cargo freighter during its final approach. The cosmonauts also retrieved the Biorisk experiment package, which had been gathering information on the effect of microbes on spacecraft structures. Finally, they tried to retrieve one of two Vinoslivo materials exposure panels from the Polsk Module, but Vinogradov lost his grip and the panel floated away out of reach and could not be recovered.

 

Seventh and final EVA by Vinogradov, bringing his total to 39 hr 28 min. Only EVA by Romanenko.

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20 APRIL

 

No EVAs on this date.

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21 APRIL

 

1972 John Young & Charlie Duke [LSEVA] (Apollo 16)

 

Duration 7 hr 11 min

 

A suspected problem with the Service Module engine had delayed the lunar landing by several hours, so the astronauts were instructed to take an eight-hour rest period before beginning their first Moonwalk. Unlike the previous mission the Commander did not perform a Stand-up EVA through the docking hatch but the astronauts did inspect their landing area through the LM windows and reported that it was rockier and hillier than previous sites. There was a further delay when Duke had difficulty putting on his space-suit because he had grown 4cm in weightlessness. Additionally, the orange juice container inside his suit had leaked during the landing and his helmet had to be cleaned. Young was irritated that they had not been told to do this before their rest period as time could have been saved. Finally they were ready and the mission's first Moonwalk began. A problem with the LM's steerable antenna meant that there was no TV coverage of Young's first steps but soon both men were on the surface and erected the American flag. They then deployed the ALSEP instruments, Duke drilling a 2.6m hole for the heat-flow experiment that had caused problems on Apollo 15. This time things went according to plan, but later Young unwittingly walked into the cable linking the probe to the ALSEP central station and ripped it free. Mission Control began a study of possible repair methods but these came to nothing and the heat-flow had to be abandoned for the second mission in a row. Now it was time to deploy the Lunar Rover but again there seemed to be problems as the rear steering was not working and one of its batteries seemed to be at a low charge. Both of these corrected themselves as the traverse progressed and the astronauts drove past Flag, Spook, Buster and Plum craters, covering a total distance of 4.2km. Back at the LM Duke observed while Young carried out tests on the Rover dubbed the 'Grand Prix'.

 

First EVA for both astronauts.

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22 APRIL

 

1972 John Young & Charlie Duke [LSEVA] (Apollo 16)

 

Duration 7 hr 23 min

 

Prior to the start of the second Moonwalk, Mission Control decided against having the astronauts try to repair the broken cable of the heat-flow experiment as it would take too long, in addition to the risk of short-circuiting the ALSEP central station. As Young was crawling backwards out of the LM part of his antenna snapped off, causing a minor drop in signal strength, but not enough to cause concern.  The cosmic ray experiment had shown signs of overheating so it was moved into the LM's shadow. The astronauts then set off towards Stone Mountain aboard the LRV. They collected rock and soil samples and reported that the LM was barely visible in the distance.  However although the roving vehicle increased the distance they could travel, mission rules prevented them from going so far that they would be unable to walk back if it broke down. The total distance travelled was 11.1km and included stops at six field stations: a planned seventh stop was cancelled for timing reasons.

 

Second EVA for both astronauts.

 

 

 

1998 Talgat Musabeyev & Nikolai Budarin (Mir Expedition 25)

 

Duration 6 hr 21 min

 

The old attitude thruster was discarded in such a manner that it would not interfere with operations aboard Mir and would burn up in the atmosphere within a year. The cosmonauts also installed the new thruster on the Sofora boom, which was repositioned vertically.

 

Eighth and final EVA for Musabeyev: his career total is 42 hr 23 min. Ninth and last for Budarin: his total is 46 hr 4 min.

 

 


2001 Chris Hadfield & Scott Parazynski (STS-100/ISS)

 

Duration 7 hr 10 min

 

This was the first of two EVAs to install the Canadarm2 manipulator, a 17.6m robotic arm that was a larger version of the one carried on many Shuttle flights. It could 'walk' around the ISS by successively grappling external fixtures and when operational would be used to reposition large payloads as well as providing a foothold for astronauts during EVA activities.

 

First EVA for Hadfield (the first Canadian EVA); the second for Parazynski.

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23 APRIL

 

1972 John Young & Charlie Duke [LSEVA] (Apollo 16)

 

Duration 5 hr 40 min

 

The delay in landing two days earlier meant that the LM's cooling water supply was running low and consideration was given to cancelling the third EVA. Unsurprisingly the scientists were opposed to this so it was allowed to go ahead, though shortened by two hours and with five of the planned stops eliminated. The astronauts drove to the foot of Smoky Mountain and took samples and magnetic field readings, detecting the largest magnetic field found on the Moon. Young was asked to look at the bottom of North Ray crater but turned down the request as he felt it was too risky. They chipped pieces off a boulder dubbed House Rock: at 10m high and 20m long it was the largest sampled during the Apollo programme. At one point the LRV's navigational computer failed, but the crew were in no danger of getting lost: they could determine their location from the position of the Sun, and at worst could retrace their own wheel tracks. On the way back to the LM, the rover reached its highest speed, 22kph, as it rolled down a 15-degree slope. Young parked the vehicle 50m from the LM so ground controllers could use the camera to monitor the ascent stage lift-off.

 

Third and final EVA for Young: his total time on the surface was 20 hr 14 min. Also the third for Duke, though he would perform one further EVA during the flight home.

 

 

 

1984 Leonid Kizim & Vladimir Solovyov (Salyut 7 Expedition 3)

 

Duration 4 hr 20 min

 

Salyut's main propulsion system had suffered an oxidiser pressurisation rupture some months previously, and the tools and equipment to repair it had been delivered by Progress 20 a week earlier. As there were no handholds where the cosmonauts would be working, the freighter was also fitted with a special extending platform with foot restraints that could be extended to hold them in the right position. To reach the area, however, the cosmonauts had to manoeuvre some 15m across Salyut's hull, encumbered by the equipment: a tool caddy, cutters, wrenches, replacement pipe sections and a folding 5m ladder. These were secured to the hull in preparation for the repairs, but the work itself would wait for another day.

 

First EVA for both cosmonauts.

 

 


2014 Rick Mastracchio & Steven Swanson (ISS Expedition 39)

 

Duration 1 hr 36 min

 

During this brief EVA the astronauts replaced a backup multiplexer/demultiplexer which had failed during routine testing twelve days earlier.

 

Ninth and last EVA for Mastracchio: his career total is 53 hr 4 min. Fifth and last for Swanson: his is 27 hr 58 min.

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24 APRIL

 

2001 Chris Hadfield & Scott Parazynski (STS-100/ISS)

 

Duration 7 hr 40 min

 

The astronauts completed installation of the Canadarm2 manipulator, hooking up cables to the Power and Data Grapple Fixture. They also detached an ECOMM antenna and transferred a spare Direct Current Switching Unit from Endeavour's cargo bay to a storage rack on the Destiny Module.

 

Second EVA for Hadfield; third for Parazynski.

 

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25 APRIL

 

1972 Ken Mattingly [CLEVA], Charlie Duke [SEVA] (Apollo 16)

 

Duration 1 hr 24 min

 

During Apollo 16's flight home from the Moon, it was CMP Ken Mattingly's turn in the spotlight as he carried out an EVA to retrieve film cassettes from the SIMBAY of the Service Module. While his colleagues were on the lunar surface, Mattingly had carried out an extensive photography programme and now the exposed film had to be retrieved, otherwise it would of course have burnt up when the SM was jettisoned. This was dubbed a 'CisLunar EVA' as it took place not in orbit but in deep space between Earth and Moon. He was supported throughout by Charlie Duke, performing a Stand-up EVA to take the cassettes from him and pass them down into the cabin. Mattingly also exposed the Microbial Ecological Evaluation Device to open space for some ten minutes.

 

Mattingly's only EVA; Duke's fourth and last. Combined with his time on the lunar surface this took his career total to 21 hr 27 min.

 

 


1991 Viktor Afanaseyev & Musa Manarov (Mir Expedition 8 )

 

Duration 3 hr 34 min

 

On 21 March the Progress M-7 freighter had failed to dock when its Kurs automated guidance system failed to lock onto Mir for the final 500m closure. A second attempt two days later was equally unsuccessful, the approach being aborted by Mission Control just 20m out. On 26 March the cosmonauts undocked their Soyuz TM-11 craft from Mir's forward port and manoeuvred round to the rear to watch what was happening for themselves. Again the automatic system failed, showing that the problem lay on the Mir side rather than with the Progress, Docking was completed manually and Progress docked successfully at Mir's now-vacant front port. Meanwhile the cosmonauts prepared for an EVA to investigate. This began with the set-up of an experimental thermo-mechanical joint, which would provide data to support deployment of the Sofota truss during the next Mir Expedition. Afansayev reinstalled a camera on the exterior of Kvant 2 (this had been brought inside during the 7 January EVA) while Manarov crawled some 30m along the exterior of Kvant to inspect the antenna system. This violated the Soviet 'buddy policy' which required that the cosmonauts remain together at all times, and he received a rebuke afterwards. However he was able to determine that the 23cm parabolic dish was missing from one of the antennae, apparently knocked off by an accidental kick during the previous EVA. As they returned to the airlock the cosmonauts installed 'road sign' markers on handrails to assist future spacewalkers to find their way around Mir's expanding exterior.

 

Fourth EVA for Afanaseyev; seventh and final one for Manarov: his total amounts to 34 hr 35 min.

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