ENERGY CONVERSION ONE (Course 25741) CHAPTER EIGHT DC MACHINERY FUNDAMENTALS

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS 1. A Simple Rotating Loop between Curved Pole Faces - The Voltage Induced in a Rotating Loop - Getting DC voltage out of the Rotating Loop - The Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop 2. Commutation in a Simple Four-Loop DC Machine 3 * . Problems with Commutation in Real Machine - Armature Reaction - L di/dt Voltages - Solutions to the Problems with Commutation 4. The Internal Generated Voltage and Induced Torque Equations of Real DC Machine 5. The Construction of DC Machine 6. Power Flow and Losses in DC Machines * Will not be discussed

DC MACHINERY:

DC MACHINERY The simplest rotating dc machine is shown below:

DC MACHINERY:

DC MACHINERY It consists of a single loop of wire rotating about a fixed axis . The rotating part is called rotor , and the stationary part is the stator The magnetic field for the machine is supplied by the magnetic north and south poles . Since the air gap is of uniform width, the reluctance is the same everywhere under the pole faces.

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP If the rotor is rotated, a voltage will be induced in the wire loop To determine the magnitude and shape of the voltage, examine the figure below :

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP To determine the total voltage e tot on the loop , examine each segment of the loop separately and sum all the resulting voltages . The voltage on each segment is given by: e ind = ( v x B ) l Thus, the total induced voltage on the loop is: e ind = 2vBl When the loop rotates through 180°, segment ab is under the north pole face instead of the south pole face, at that time, the direction of the voltage on the segment reverses, but its magnitude remains constant . The resulting voltage e tot is shown next

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP e tot shown below

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP There is an alternative way to express the e ind equation , which clearly relates the behaviour of the single loop to the behaviour of larger, real dc machines. Examine the figure The tangential velocity v of the edges of the loop can be expressed as v = rω Substituting this expression into the e ind equation before, gives: e ind = 2rωBl

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP The rotor surface is a cylinder, so the area of the rotor surface A is equal to 2πrl Since there are 2 poles, the area under each pole is Ap = πrl. Thus, the flux density B is constant everywhere in the air gap under the pole faces , the total flux under each pole is φ = A P B. Thus, the final form of the voltage equation is:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP In general, the voltage in any real machine will depend on the same 3 factors: 1- the flux in the machine 2- The speed of rotation 3- A constant representing the construction of the machine

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP HOW TO GET IT OUT:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP HOW TO GET IT OUT The voltage out of the loop is alternately a constant positive and a constant negative value How can this machine be made to produce a dc voltage instead of the ac voltage? This can be done by using a mechanism called commutator and brushes, as shown Next Here 2 semicircular conducting segments are added to the end of the loop and 2 fixed contacts are set up at an angle such that at the instant when the voltage in the loop is zero, the contacts short-circuit the two segments.

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP HOW TO GET IT OUT:

VOLTAGE INDUCED IN A LOOP HOW TO GET IT OUT Thus, every time the voltage of the loop switches direction , the contacts also switches connections , & the output of the contacts is always built up in the same way This connection-switching process is known as commutation - The rotating semicircular segments are called commutator segments , and the fixed contacts are called brushes

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop :

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop Suppose a battery is now connected to the machine as shown here, together with the resulting configuration

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop:

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop How much torque will be produced in the loop when the switch is closed? approach to take is to examine one segment of the loop at a time and then sum the effects of all the individual segments

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop:

Induced Torque in the Rotating Loop The force on a segment of the loop is given by : F = i ( l x B ) , and the torque on the segment is = r F sin θ The resulting total induced torque in the loop is: ind = 2 r.i.l.B By using the fact that A P = πrl and φ = A P B, the torque expression can be reduced to: In general, torque in any real machine will depend on the following 3 factors: 1- The flux in the machine 2- The current in the machine 3- A constant representing the construction of the machine

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop Commutation in a Simple Four-Loop DC Machine Commutation is the process of converting the ac voltages and currents in the rotor of a dc machine to dc voltages and currents at its terminals A simple 4 loop, 2 pole dc machine is shown here

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop This machine has 4 complete loops buried in slots carved in the laminated steel of its rotor The pole faces of the machine are curved to provide a uniform air-gap width and to give a uniform flux density everywhere under the faces The 4 loops of this machine are laid into the slots in a special manner The “unprimed” end of each loop is the outermost wire in each slot, while the “primed” end of each loop is the innermost wire in the slot directly opposite

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop A winding Diagram showing interconnections of rotor loops

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop The winding’s connections to the machine’s commutator are shown below: Note : loop 1 stretches between commutator segments a and b, loop 2 stretches between segments b and c, and so forth around the rotor

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop At the instant shown in figure (a), the 1, 2, 3’ and 4’ ends of the loops are under the north pole face, while the 1’, 2’, 3 and 4 ends of the loops are under the south pole face The voltage in each of the 1, 2, 3’ and 4’ ends of the loops is given by e ind = (v x B) l e ind = vBl (positive out of page) The voltage in each of the 1’, 2’, 3 and 4 ends of the loops is given by e ind = (v x B) l e ind = vBl (positive into the page)

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop The overall result is shown in figure (b) Each coil represents one side (or conductor) of a loop If the induced voltage on any one side of a loop is called e=vBl, then the total voltage at the brushes of the machine is E = 4e (ωt=0°) Note: there are two parallel paths for current through the machine The existence of two or more parallel paths for rotor current is a common feature of all commutation schemes

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop What happens to the voltage E of the terminals as the rotor continues to rotate figure shows the machine at time ωt=45° At that time, loops 1 and 3 have rotated into the gap between the poles, so the voltage across each of them is zero

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop Note: at this instant the brushes of the machine are shorting out commutator segments ab and cd This happens just at the time when the loops between these segments have 0 V across them, so shorting out the segments creates no problem At this time, only loops 2 and 4 are under the pole faces , so the terminal voltage E is given by: E = 2e (ωt=45°) Now, let the rotor continue to turn another 45 ° The resulting situation is shown next

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop Here, the 1’, 2, 3, and 4’ ends of the loops are under the north pole face , and the 1, 2’, 3’ and 4 ends of the loops are under the south pole face

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop The voltages are still built up out of the page for the ends under the north pole face and into the page for the ends under the south pole face The resulting voltage diagram is shown here:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop:

Commutation of the Rotating Loop There are now 4 voltage-carrying ends in each parallel path through the machine, so the terminal voltage E is given by E = 4e (ωt=90°) Note: the voltages on loops 1 and 3 have reversed between the 2 pictures (from ωt=0° to ωt=90°), However, since their connections have also reversed, the total voltage is still being built up in the same direction as before. This is the heart of every commutation scheme

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine :

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine In practice, there are two major effects that disturb the commutation process: 1- Armature Reaction 2- L di/dt voltages 1- Armature Reaction If the magnetic field windings of a dc machine are connected to a power supply and the rotor of the machine is turned by an external source of mechanical power , then a voltage will be induced in the conductors of the rotor This voltage will be rectified into dc output by the action of the machine’s commutator

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Now, connect a load to the terminals of the machine, and a current will flow in its armature windings This current flow will produce a magnetic field of its own, which will distort the original magnetic field from the machine’s poles This distortion of the flux in a machine as the load is increased is called armature reaction It causes 2 serious problems in real dc machine Problem 1 : Neutral-Plane Shift The magnetic neutral plane is defined as the plane within the machine where the velocity of the rotor wires is exactly parallel to the magnetic flux lines so that e ind in the conductors in the plane is exactly zero

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Development of “armature reaction”

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction Figure (a) shows a two poles machine Note: flux is distributed uniformly under the pole faces (in air gap) rotor windings shown have voltages built up out of the page for wires under the north pole and into the page for wires under the south pole face The magnetic neutral plane in this machine is exactly vertical at this stage Now, suppose a load is connected to this machine so that it acts as a generator

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction current will flow out of the positive terminal of the generator so current will be flowing out of the page for wires under the north pole face and into the page for wires under the south pole face This current flow produces a magnetic field from the rotor windings , figure (c) This rotor magnetic field affects the original magnetic field from the poles that produced the generator’s voltage

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction In some places under the pole surfaces , it subtracts from the pole flux, and in other places it adds to the pole flux both rotor & pole fluxes shown, indicating points they add and subtract figure (d) The overall result is that the magnetic flux in the air gap of the machine, as of figure (e) Note: the place on rotor where the induced voltage in a conductor would be zero (the neutral plane) has shifted in figure (e) for the generator shown here, the magnetic neutral plane shifted in direction of rotation

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction If this machine had been a motor , the current in its rotor would be reversed and the flux would bunch up in the opposite corners from the bunches shown in the figure As a result, the magnetic neutral plane would shift the other way In general, the neutral-plane shifts (a) in “direction of motion” for generator & (b) opposite to “direction of motion” for a motor Furthermore, the amount of shift depends on the amount of rotor current and hence on the load of the machine

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction Note: if brushes are set to short out conductors in the vertical plane , then voltage between segments is indeed zero until machine is loaded When machine is loaded , neutral plane shifts & brushes short out commutator segments with a finite voltage across them The result is a current flow circulating between shorted segments & large sparks at brushes when current path interrupted This is a very serious problem , since it leads to drastically reduced brush life , pitting commutator segments & greatly increased maintenance cost

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction Note: this problem can not be solved even by placing brushes over full-load neutral plane , because then they would spark at no load In extreme cases neutral plane shift can even lead to flashover in commutator segments near brushes Air near brushes in a machine is normally ionized as a result of sparking on brushes Flashover occurs when voltage of adjacent commutator segments gets large enough to sustain an arc in ionized air above them If flashover occurs , resulting arc can even melt commutator’s surface

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction Problem 2 : flux weakening Refer to magnetization curve (1 st figure next): most machine operate at flux densities near saturation point Therefore at locations on pole surfaces , where rotor mmf adds pole mmf, only a small increase in flux occurs But at locations on pole surfaces where rotor mmf subtracts from pole mmf, there is a larger decrease in flux Net result total average flux under entire pole face is decreased shown in 2 nd figure (next)

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening A typical magnetization curve

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening Flux and mmf under pole faces in a dc machine

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening Flux weakening causes problems in both generators & motors In generators effect of flux weakening is simply to reduce voltage supplied by generator for any given load In motors effect can be more serious As shown when flux in motor decreased, its speed increases But increasing speed of motor can increase its load, resulting in more flux weakening It is possible for some shunt dc motors to reach runway condition as a result where speed of motor just keeps increasing until machine is disconnected, or been destroyed

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening L di/dt Voltages occurs in commutator segments & shorted by brushes, cause of problem

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening The previous figure , represents a series of commutator segments and conductors connected between them Assuming the current in brush is 400 A, current in each path 200 A Note: when commutator segment is shorted out, current flow through that commutator segment must reverse How fast must this reversal occur? Assuming machine is turning at 800 r/min & there are 50 commutator segments (a reasonable number for a typical motor) each segment moves under a brush & clears it again in t=0.0015 s rate of change in current, of shorted loop would be: di/dt=400/0.0015 = 266667 A/s

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening:

Problems with Commutation in Real Machine Armature Reaction:field weakening With even a very small inductance in loop , a very significant inductive voltage v= Ldi/dt will be induced in the shorted commutator segment This high voltage naturally causes sparking at brushes of machine, resulting in same arcing problems that neutral plane shift causes

Solution to Problems with Commutation:

Solution to Problems with Commutation 3 approaches to (partially or completely) rectify problems of armature reaction and L di/dt voltages : 1- Brush Shifting 2- Commutating Poles or Interpoles 3- Compensating Windings

Solution to Problems with Commutation BRUSH SHIFTING:

Solution to Problems with Commutation BRUSH SHIFTING First attempts to improve process of commutation in real dc machines , started with attempts to stop sparking at brushes caused by neutral-plane shifts and L di/dt effects 1 st approach by designers : if neutral plane of machine shifts, why not shift the brushes with it in order to stop sparking it seemed a good idea, however there are several serious problems associated with it 1- neutral plane moves with every change in load , & shift direction reverses when machines goes from motor operation to generation operation, and brushes should be adjusted every time load changed 2- shifting brushes may stop brush sparking, however aggravated flux-weakening since: (a) Rotor mmf now has a vector component opposes mmf of poles (b) Change in armature current distribution cause flux to bunch up even more at saturated parts of pole faces

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