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British Cruiser Tank A9 & A10 Armor PhotoHistory #5 A9 - The pilot model was ready in 1936, under the designation of A9E1. The A9 was a mix of commercial parts (like the AEC bus engine for the production series) and some already used on the Light Mk.III, as well as some innovations. It was the first to use a fully hydraulically-powered traverse turret, (a Nash & Thompson system already in use on the Wellington bomber). The turret was center-mounted. It also had a system of two bogies with three road wheels of unequal size, to help reduce the number of parts while saving on maintenance costs on the long run. However, this would prove a poor design choice. The hull was made of bolted plates, because it was easier to engineer flat ones. The armour was limited to 14 mm (0.55 in) only, in order to keep the power-to-weight ratio high enough for a good cruising speed. The steering brakes were mounted outside of the rear sprockets to help cooling. There was also an auxiliary engine used to charge the batteries and drive a ventilator, cooling the fighting compartment. A10 - Although fast (24.9 mph/40 km/h), the first Cruiser lacked protection, with just 14 mm (0.55 in) on the turret mantlet and nose glacis. The triple turret system made it complicated to build, and this feature, once in favour in the interwar, was seen as obsolete by 1940. The A10 was studied by John Carden in 1934, following a specification for a 1 inch (25.4 mm) armoured tank, while its speed could be slightly lower. The A9 plans were subsequently modified into the A10. Both were strikingly similar, but the two frontal turrets were eliminated and replaced by a lighter armoured box, armed with a single .303 (7.62 mm) machine gun. The biggest change was the armour, raised up to 30 mm (1.18 in) on the nose and mantlet, and 14 mm (0.55 in) elsewhere, while the bottom, rear plate and rooftop were just 6 mm (0.24 in) thick. The engine was unchanged (AEC Type A179 6-cylinder petrol, 150 hp), resulting in an added weight of 2.3 tons, and a top speed reduced in effect to just 26 km/h (16.1 mph), compared to the 40 km/h (25 mph) of the Mk.I, barely more than infantry pace on rough terrain. A total of 175 were delivered, from July to December 1939, by the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company, Metropolitan-Cammell and Vickers, entering service early in 1940. This softcover book contains eighty eight pages of information, photographs, diagrams and colour profiles. The first 25 pages cover the history of the design and development that went into these tanks, including some fabulous period photographs of the vehicles. The photo album section, fills the centre 39 pages have photos that cover every theatre that these tanks were used in, including Europe, North Africa, and` Greece and also on exercises and training within the UK. The descriptive text that accompanies each set of photographs includes, where possible, the vehicles serial number, unit, information on the gun mounting and even the vehicles name. Some of the more interesting photographs are those of the tanks being transported, whether under their own steam, by rail or Scammell TRMU30 with its TRCU30 trailer The final 30 pages contain six pages of line side views, all in 1:35 scale show each variant including very useful information on distinguishing the differences not only of the profile. There then follows eight pages of equipment drawings, including items such as the lower hull to equipment fittings and even the driver’s seat. Finally, there are ten pages of two and three view colour plates which show clearly the colour schemes used, the various regiments and unit markings and their positioning. These plates are also annotated, describing where and when the particular tank was used and their final fate. Conclusion This is another fabulous book in the series, which is not only very interesting for a historians point of view, but for those modellers who are interested in these vehicles. It would make a great resource and companion piece to the modeller when building one of the 1:72 Plastic Soldier or Early War Miniatures kits that are available. Review sample courtesy of
British Cruiser Tank A13 Mk.1 and Mk.II Armor PhotoHistory The development of the A13 can be traced back to 1930, with the development of the Christie tank and revolutionary suspension in the USA. British officers, however, only really became interested in the concept after seeing a Red Army large-scale exercise and manoeuvres, featuring platoons of BTs. Their sheer speed and the operational opportunities available to them were more than obvious. Later, Morris sent a team in USA to purchase one of Walter Christie's tanks, with a licence. This experimental type, named A13E1 (fall 1936), was too cramped for operations and had to be rebuilt, leading to a second prototype A13E2. The latter had the new Cruiser Mk.I (A9) turret, a revised drive train, with only the rear drive sprocket, better tracks and revised armour design. In trials, speeds in excess of 40 mph (65 km/h) were possible, but in practice, 30 mph (48 km/h) was more commonly used in cruise speed. The third prototype, A13E3, set the pre-production standards for the new A13 series. The Cruiser Mk.I was the first to be built, although in small quantities (only 65), followed by an all-improved version, the A13 Mk.II. The A13 Mk.I was built at Nuffield Mechanization & Aero Limited (a subsidiary of Morris Motors) in 1939. With the threat of war growing, some shortcomings were detected and, by the 30th delivered, the War Office decided to build a new, up-armoured model. The main frontal armour was to be raised to 1 in (30 mm) and the turret was to receive appliqué armour panels covering the sides and rear in a sloped formula, which was also adopted by the next generation of cruisers, the Covenanter and Crusader. This angled turret is the easiest way to distinguish between the A13 Mk.II and the Mk.I. The last Cruiser Mk.III was upgraded to this new standard before delivery. With war approaching, production orders were raised to 225 units, to be delivered before the end of 1940. Nuffield facilities were not sufficient, so English Electric, Leyland and LMS Railway were later called to join the wartime production. The first change affected the Vickers water-cooled 0.303 in (7.7 in) machine-gun, which gave constant troubles. The more reliable and compact Besa, with an anti-vibration mount was chosen instead. This model was derived from a Czech design. All vehicles produced by 1940 were rearmed with this new coaxial machine-gun, later known as the Mk.IVA, the main and only variant of the A13 Mk.II. In all, 665 were built of this variant, until late 1940. This softcover book contains eighty eight pages of information, photographs, diagrams and colour profiles. Not only does this book cover the history of the design and development that went into these tanks, but it is filled with some fabulous period photographs of the vehicles. These photos cover the every theatre that these tanks were used in, including Europe, North Africa, Malta and also on exercises and training within the UK. The descriptive text that accompanies each set of photographs includes, where possible, the vehicles serial number, unit, information on the gun mounting and even the vehicles name. Some of the more interesting photographs are those of the tanks being transported, whether under their own steam, by rail or the more rarely seen American built White 920 tank transporter. The line side views, all in 1:35 scale show each variant from the prototype to the last production version and are very useful in distinguishing the differences not only of the profile, but also the equipment and gun mountings used throughout production. Then there is a section of line diagrams of some of the equipment used in the tanks, ranging from the engine, gearbox and clutch brake assemblies through to the instrument panels and equipment positions in the fighting compartment. Finally, there are seven pages of three and four view colour plates which show clearly the colour schemes used, the various regiments and unit markings and their positioning. Conclusion This is a superb book which is not only very interesting for a historians point of view, but for those modellers who, like me, are interested in these vehicles. It would make a great resource and companion piece to the modeller when building one of the Bronco or Italeri kits that are available. Very highly recommended. Review sample courtesy of