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Casey

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    Colors. Math. Getting paint on fingers and stuff.

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  1. I checked the above Vallejo mix and it turns out too green, feeling more like green zinc chromate. Left: 70:30 mix of 71.010 and 71.050 Right: Vallejo 71.044 RLM 02 30:10 mix under spectrophotometer suggests it does contain green pigment and has 5.30DE color difference. (using CIEDE2000 color difference - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_difference#CIEDE2000) Vallejo 71.044 is bit closer and has 3.11DE color difference For sake of completeness, here is a simple mix of Golden Fluid Acrylics: Yellow Oxide: 4, Titanium White: 8, Carbon Black: 1 (parts by mass) and results has 1.25DE difference from the target color. The other two colors are my attempts of RLM66 and RLM70. And no RLM70 does not need green pigment neither. If you are curious my recipes are: RLM 66: Carbon Black: 3, Titanium White: 4, Burnt Sienna: 4 (by mass) - with difference of 0.94DE from the target RLM 70: Carbon Black: 4, Yellow Oxide: 3, Titanium White: 2, Benzimidazolone Yellow Medium: 1 (by mass) - with difference of 1.16DE I have a large collection of RLM samples, and they do differ a bit (I just kind of arbitrary pick my reference as Merrick&Kiroff color sample pictured above) but none of them go into 'contains green pigment' range - there was a great post from @Jamie @ Sovereign Hobbies about how the olive range is made without using any green pigments and how much chromatic pigment is needed to make it 'more green'.
  2. If I could suggest something - try looking for products from companies that target laboratories as their customers. I use this one: https://www.heathrowscientific.com/vortex-mixers/mini-vortex-mixer They are more on expensive side but they seem to be made to take a beating - mine works flawlessly for years.
  3. The only explanation that comes to my mind is that they used Ultramarine Blue in the mixes which can desaturate in presence of acidic environment over time which may be possible in that old paint. Some pigments are lightfast, but are not chemically stable - Ultramarine is a prime example here. I hope @Jamie @ Sovereign Hobbies could chime in there, considering his woes with PB10 Interestingly, Ultramarine Blue is quite stable in acrylics due to themselves being alkaline enviornment, but the same reason removes real Prussian Blue pigment from acrylic range.
  4. I use lab vortex mixer mostly. The nail shaker is making too much foam with some paints/media for me. Stirrer is useful for more thick paints, but some paint containers turn it into 'fastest way to have a need to repaint your room' exercise.
  5. You can get really close. Revel Aqua #45 is almost a perfect match for RLM02. This color does NOT have any green pigment inside, it is pure mix of black, white and yellow oxide. I just mixed the following Revel colors from your list above: 3x White (05), 2x Black (09 - actually Anthracite) and 1x Yellow (15) and got pretty good match with Revel Aqua #45. Like this: And got the following: On the left is the resulting mixture, on the right is real Revel #45
  6. It depends on volume for me. Small volume like for 1/72 scale I use single-use cheap pant pots: For larger volume I got reusable glass jars - I bought those from Master Airbrush because of the direct airbrush support:
  7. Here is yet another episode of the review of the quality of color matches from paint vendors - this time, I've worked on another Polish paint set to verify their claims of the historical accuracy of color matches. Link to the paint itself: https://www.hataka-hobby.com/HTK-AS02-Early-Luftwaffe-Paint-Set As a comparison reference source, I've used: Luftwaffe Camouflage and Markings 1933-1945 vol I K.A. Merrick and Jurgen Kiroff - https://www.scalemates.com/books/luftwaffe-camouflage-and-markings-1933-1945-volume-1-classic-colours-luftwaffe-camouflage-and-markings-vol1-k-a-merrick-juergen-kiroff--102687 Luftwaffe Colours 1935-1945 - Michael Ullmann - https://www.scalemates.com/books/luftwaffe-colours-michael-ullmann--102400 This time the comparison is made of three parts: Visual comparison: flatbed scanner scans Technical comparison: spectrophotometer and gloss meter readouts + some comments from my side Drawdowns All paints were mixed on a vortex mixer for a couple of minutes. Then I prepared drawdowns using BYK drawdown charts and a 10mil drawdown bar using unthinned paint, then let them dry for 72h. Due to the thickness of the paint layer, most of the samples form a concave shape on the drawdown charts; you can see it as a dark 'outline' around the color patch, which is an effect of scans of samples when they are pressed to the glass surface. All Hataka paints seem to be of SATIN finish where reference is full matt - which means visually they seem darker Visual comparison To facilitate visual comparison, I've scanned primary reference sources and drawdowns on a scanner with color correction turned off - it means the colors are unmodified by software and are as seen as my scanner device. Then I've cut&pasted the corresponding reference tiles to the drawdowns to let you see them close. I've left un-modified drawdowns on the 'spoilers' section. Please note the colors seen by the flatbed scanner are not the same as seen by the spectrophotometer, but the difference between colors should be directly comparable. Also, be aware that the gloss finish of the Hataka paint is different than the reference samples. Here is a scan of reference source: And here are drawdowns with reference sources overlayed: Technical comparison Below are spectrophotometer scans, compared with the references. Explanation of the column names is in the spoiler section below: HTK-A015 - Black Green (RLM70) Not a bad match for the Merrick publication, almost perfect for Ullmann HTK-A017 - Dark Green (RLM71) Not really bad but somewhat metameric matches for both publications, both are below 3.0DE HTK-A023 - Grey (RLM02) Very good match for Merrick and Kiroff publication. HTK-A029 - Light Blue (RLM65/78) Calling paint a match for two different colors is not not setting the best expectations, and this color closest match is the later war RLM65 from Ullmann publication.
  8. Here is the next episode of the review of the quality of color matches from paint vendors - this time, I've worked on this Polish paint to verify their claims of the historical accuracy of color matches. Here is the link to the paint set itself: https://www.hataka-hobby.com/HTK-AS07-Royal-Air-Force-paint-set As a comparison reference source, I've used: British Aviation Colours Of World War Two The Official Camouflage, Colours and Markings of RAF Aircraft, 1939-45 - https://www.scalemates.com/books/british-aviation-colours-world-war-two-raf-museum-series-3--109352 BS381C - British Standards 38C - https://knowledge.bsigroup.com/products/specification-for-colours-for-identification-coding-and-special-purposes-3/standard The Official Monogram US Navy & Marine Corps Aircraft Color Guide Vol 2 1940 - 1949 - https://www.scalemates.com/books/the-official-monogram-us-navy-and-marine-corps-aircraft-color-guide-john-m-elliott-maj-usmc-ret--110622 Federal Standard 595A - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Standard_595 This time the comparison is made of three parts: Visual comparison: flatbed scanner scans Technical comparison: spectrophotometer and gloss meter readouts + some comments from my side Drawdowns All paints were mixed on a vortex mixer for a couple of minutes. Then I prepared drawdowns using BYK drawdown charts and a 10mil drawdown bar using unthinned paint, then let them dry for 72h. Due to the thickness of the paint layer, most of the samples form a concave shape on the drawdown charts; you can see it as a dark 'outline' around the color patch, which is an effect of scans of samples when they are pressed to the glass surface. All Hataka paints seem to be of SATIN finish where reference is full matt - which means visually they seem darker Visual comparison To facilitate visual comparison, I've scanned primary reference sources and drawdowns on a scanner with color correction turned off - it means the colors are unmodified by software and are as seen as my scanner device. Then I've cut&pasted the corresponding reference tiles to the drawdowns to let you see them close. I've left un-modified drawdowns on the 'spoilers' section. Please note the colors seen by the flatbed scanner are not the same as seen by the spectrophotometer, but the difference between colors should be directly comparable. Also, be aware that the gloss finish of the Hataka paint is different than the reference samples. Here is a scan of reference source And here are drawdowns and drawdowns with reference sources overlayed: As you can see, my HTK-A025 paint had some issues, pigment was visibly grainier and there were dried out bits in the bottle. To use in airbrush I'd need to strain it. Technical comparison Below are spectrophotometer scans, compared with the references. Explanation of the column names is in the spoiler section below: HTK-A009 - Dark Earth The color is below 3.0DE difference, which means it is noticeably different. HTK-A016 - Dark Green This paint is a good match for RAF Dark Green. However, I've compared it with BS381C just for completeness. HTK-A025 - Interior Grey-Green I am still trying to figure out what this color was supposed to be. It is neither RAF Grey-green nor BS381C-283. I wonder if my paint sample was broken there or is how the color is, but even then, it is closer to BS381C-283 HTK-A026 - Sky "Type S" They are calling it RAF Sky Type S - and it is not. However, it is a good match for 610 Sky from Monogram publication and a relatively decent one for BS381C-210 Sky. HTK-A032 - Ocean Grey This paint is not the best match for RAF Ocean Grey, but quite decent for BS381C-629. I am sensing a pattern there. HTK-A034 - Medium Sea Grey This paint is not a good match for Medium Sea Grey (alongside BS381-637), which should have different hue. It is a decent match for FS36231, though.
  9. +1 for that. I am making a nice Yak-1B model recently and it has good interior details for 1/72 scale with PE parts. And a canopy that comes with the kit makes it is kind of art just for the sake of it, since nobody will see what I place there. I have models that have cockpit extra details (or those I accidentally sacrificed to Allmighty Carpet) made from rolled blu-tack slapped with paint and nobody could ever notice.
  10. I had quite good results with Humbrol DecalFix. They recommend actually *soaking* the decal in it. There is good tutorial here: Be careful it may react with gloss layer if you have any. But as always - test with some spare decal there if you have any left.
  11. Yes. Darker the color, more visible the effect. Your perception (not the color itself) is very affected by the paint finish (gloss/matte/satin). You look at the paint from single viewpoint, and more glossy the paint is, more it works as a mirror - which effectively lets you see the reflection of space around you on the paint surface, so your color perception depends on an angle towards the light source. This effect is less prominent on matt paint.. Here is an example of same color chips (top is black and bottom white) with matt and glossy finish each.
  12. It is. Here are spectrophotometer readouts of both (RAF04 is referring to the fourth paint chip on British Aviation Colours of World War Two publication) It has difference of 1.02DE which is considered a very close match, but it is for some reason satin. I thought at first it was something wrong with my paint but is listed as semi glossy on some sites (http://filia.com/da/543343). This site also contains Tamiya SDS'es so they have pretty good information there. Gloss meter readouts are in remarks section, measured in Gloss Units at 60deg gloss meter. GU 2.9 is full matt while GU 30.8 is satin. The match is also metameric in wavelengths humans are most sensitive to, so difference is noticeable in different light conditions. Good news is that based on its SDS Tamiya uses PY13 (Dairylide Yellow), PO34 (Pyrazolone Orange), Titanium White and Carbon Black to achieve this mix - That means - no green pigments there - @Troy Smith Here is my mix if you need some inspiration RAF002 - Dark Earth - Flat Suggested using total of 10 parts (DE00: 0.34) XF-4 - Yellow Green: 4 XF-10 - Flat Brown: 5 XF-12 - J.N. Grey: 1 And here how it looked for me (on top of same insert from the book mentioned above) It also produces metameric match. HTH!
  13. Also be bit careful with color sources - Nick Millman work mentioned above are considered good. I've made a mistake and used Camoufrage (sic) & Markings of the Imperial Japanese Navy Fighters in W.W. II' (Model Art Special Issue series, No. 272), 1986 because it had paint chips which turned out they are not a good reference ... I've placed measurements of copy of those paint chips on GB Turning Japanese build reference materials you can find it there, but as I said - it is not the best source. But my orange Zero looks cool nonetheless
  14. I use math to calculate my mixes. I have XF57 but to do the math I need K and S (absorption/scattering) measurements and calculating those needs multiple samples per paint. I only did that excercise for first 16 Tamiya paints so far. Make sure you take into the account perceptual differences between gloss (how the RAL samples usually are) and flat finishes of Tamiya XF. I verified my mix on spectrophotometer but perceptually those colors will look different due to paint finish. Cover your XF paint sample in gloss varnish to compare (or spray dried paint sample with water for temporary comparison) If you mix flat paint to look similar as glossy paint target you will end up with considerably darker mixture, depending on viewing conditions but humans tend to look at 45 degree angle at gloss paint samples. Thats why 45 degree spectrophotometers exist too But I am rambling... Make the model look good for you first!
  15. I do not have measurements of XF57, I only have data for first 16 Tamiyas so I would need to make a sample. XF9 and XF7 together alone make color similar to the target. Also a few drops is not too precise I mix paints using lab equipment, the sample above using my recipe I mixed using 500/400/100 microliters each. Do you have RAL color samples?
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